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Wyoming History

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Great Depression

Endnotes

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

1 Leonard Arrington, "The New Deal in the West: A Preliminary Statistical Inquiry, Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 38, No. 3, (August 1969), 311. The best overview of the Depression Era is found in Gerald D. Nash, The Crucial Era: The Great Depression and World War II 1939-1945, Second Edition (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992). Another good discussion , but limited in time span, is Paul K. Conkin, The New Deal, Second Edition (Arlington Heights, Illinois: Harlan Davidson, Inc., 1975). For an overview of the New Deal in the West, Richard Lowitt's The New Deal and the West, (Bloomington: Indian University Press, 1984), is an excellent work. Other works worthy of note that deal specifically with Wyoming are; Charlie B. Beall, "Wyoming: The Equality State," in Frank H. Jonas, ed., Western Politics (Salt Lake City, 1961); and Gene M. Gressly, "Joseph C. O'Mahoney, FDR and the Supreme Court," Pacific Historical Review 40, (1971): 183-202.                        

2 Ibid.., 313-314. It should be noted that in some cases, the amount spent by the federal government was based on the amount of public land within the state borders. Thus, Nevada ($1,130), Montana ($710), and Wyoming ($626), with small populations but large amounts of public lands would receive a higher per capita income from the federal government.

3 James T. Patterson, "The New Deal in the West," Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 38, No. 3, (August 1969), 318-319.

4 T. A. Larson, "The New Deal in Wyoming," Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 38, No. 3, (August 1969), 249.

5 Ibid.., 251.

6 Ibid..

7 Ibid..

8 Ibid..

9 Ibid.., 254.

10 "Report of Coordinating Committee of Federal Departments and Agencies in Wyoming," State Capital, December 2, 1936, Cheyenne, Wyoming, Ms on file, Wyoming Archives and Records, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 2. Courtest of Carl Hallberg, Senior Historian, Archives, Records Management, and Micrographics Services, February 18, 1993.

11 Ibid..,2-3.

12 Ibid..,3.

13 The Cody Enterprise, September 18, 1935, p. l.

14 T. A. Larson, Wyoming: A History (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1978).

15 T. A. Larson, "The New Deal in Wyoming," Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 38, No. 3, August 1969, 251.

16 Ibid..

17 The Rock Springs Rocket, November 6, 1930, 1.

18 The Rock Springs Rocket, December 4, 1930, 1.

19 Ibid..

20 Ibid..

21 The Rocket Springs Miner, September 13, 1930, 2. Rock Springs.                     HOME

22 Ibid..

23 The Rock Springs Miner, July 11, 1930, 1. See also October 3, 1930 issue for a discussion of Rock Springs being put on the eastbound air mail schedule.

24 The Rock Springs Miner, February 12, 1931, 1.

25 A. Dudley Gardner and David E. Johnson "Cultural Resource Inventory and Mitigation of Thirty-Seven Mine Reclamation Sites in Sweetwater County, Wyoming, Vol. II," Cultural Resource Management Report No. 29, (Rock Springs: Archaeological Services, Western Wyoming College, 1986), Appendix H, 35. Appendix H of this report contains 123 pages of oral interview transcripts. Hereafter all oral interviews in this text abbreviated: "CRM No. 29."

26 CRM, No. 29, 63-64.

27 Ibid., 64

28 Oral interview of Wiley F. Shaver, conducted by Shelley Mandros, March 20, 1990, (Ms on file Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College, Rock Springs, type transcript, 1-8), 4.

29 Ibid.., 4-5.

30 Ibid.., 5.

31 Ibid..

32 Ibid.., 1, 2.

33 Ibid.., 5.

34 Ibid..

35 Ibid..

36 Ibid..

37 Ibid..

 38 Oral Interview of George and Leona Hansen, conducted by Jahna Groh, September 21, 1988, (Ms on file Archaeological Serves of Western Wyoming College, Rock Springs, typed transcript, 1-21), 5.

39 Ibid..

40 Ibid.., 5-6.

41 Oral interview of Mary Yugovich conducted by Lori Harper, November 11, 1988, (Ms on file Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College, typed transcript, 1-12), 2, 3.

42 Ibid.., 3.

43 Ibid..

44 Ibid..

45 Oral interview of Seana Hinesley conducted by Harry C. Jones, July 19, 1989, (Ms on file Archaeological Services Western Wyoming College, Rock Springs, typed transcript 1-3), 1. Hereafter cited as Hinesley Interview.

46 Ibid..

47 Christine Booth interview by Carlyle Martin, October 5, 1991, (Ms on file Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College, typed transcript 1-6), 2.

48 Ibid..

49 The Rock Springs Rocket, November 17, 1932, 1.

50 Ibid..

51 Ibid..

52 Ibid..

53 Ibid..

54 The Rock Springs Rocket, March 30, 1933, 1.

55 Fifteenth Census of the United States, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1931).

56 Sixteenth Census of the United States, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1942).

57 The Rock Springs Rocket, March 30, 1933, 1.

58 Ibid..

59 Ibid..

60 Ibid..

61 For example, The Rock Springs Rocket Miner article entitled "Employment of Millions is Envisioned in Move to Join Government with Industry, May 11, 1933.

62 The Rock Springs Rocket, May 11, 1933, 2.

63 Ibid..

64 For example, The Rock Springs Rocket, September 14, 1923, 1.

65 The Rock Springs Rocket, June 20, 1933, 1.

66 Ibid..

67 Ibid..

68 The Rock Springs Rocket, June 22, 1933, 1.

69 Ibid.., 1, 7.

70 The Rock Springs Rocket, July 27, 1933, 1.

71 The Rock Springs Rocket, August 3, 1933, 2.

72 The Rock Springs Rocket, August 7, 1933, 1.

73 The Laramie Republican-Boomerang, August 11, 1933, 3.

74 The Laramie Republican Boomerang, April 7, 1933, l.

75 Robert Harold Brown, Wyoming: A Geography, (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1980), 43.

76 The Laramie Republican Boomerang, April 7, 1933, 1.

77 "Progress Report to December 31, 1936, "Construction of the Reliance Tipple." Reliance Tipple construction drawings and papers, Ms on file Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College, Union pacific Records: Collection 1, Box 4.

78 W Leonard Hay, Oral Interview," Spring, 1988, conducted by Amy Hay, Transcript on file Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College), 1. Hereafter cited as "Hay Interview."

79 Ibid..

80 Ibid..

 81Ibid..,2.                                                                                                            

82 In David E. Johnson and A. Dudley Gardner, "Historic x.cabin.t.bmp (313256 bytes)Investigations Along South Piney Creek, Sublette County, Wyoming," (Rock Springs, Wyoming: Ms on file Archaeological Services Western Wyoming College, 1988), A.11; Appendix A is the transcript of the oral interview with Dan Budd, pp. 1-23.

83 Hinesley Interview, 1. For a very brief account of John Hay's establishment of the Rock Springs National Bank, see L. Milton Woods, Sometimes the Books Froze: Wyoming's Economy and Its Banks, (Boulder, Colorado: Associated University Press, 1985), 91.

84 Annual Report of the State Coal Mine Inspector, (Cheyenne: State Inspector of Coal Mines, 1936), 8; Annual Report of the State Coal Mine Inspector, (Cheyenne: State Inspector of Coal Mines, 1938), 11; Annual Report of the State Coal Mine Inspector, (Cheyenne: State Inspector of Coal Mines, 1939), 11; Annual Report of the State Coal Mine Inspector, (Cheyenne: State Inspector of Coal Mines, 1940), 10.

85 A. D. Gardner and D. E. Johnson, "Cultural Resource Inventory and Mitigation of Thirty-Seven Mine Reclamation Sites in Sweetwater County, Wyoming," Cultural Resource Management Report No. 29, (Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College, Rock Springs, 1986), 80.

86 H. B. Cooley, Letter to Eugene McAuliffe, October 15, 1936. Reliance Tipple construction drawings and papers, (Ms on file, Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College; Reliance Records), 1.

87 Progress Report to December 31, 1936. Construction of the Reliance Tipple, reliance Tipple construction drawings and papers, (Ms on file, Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College; Reliance Records).

88 Ibid..

89 J. A. Garcia, letter to Eugene McAuliffe, t.tipple.x.jpg (14987 bytes)April 13, 1936. Reliance Tipple Construction drawings and papers, (Ms on file, Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College; Reliance Records).

90 S. Tescher, letter to John A. Garcia, March 25, 1936. Reliance Tipple construction drawings and papers, (Ms on file, Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College; Reliance Records), 1.

91 E. Burkhardt, letter to Union Pacific, March 9, 1936. Reliance Tipple construction drawings and papers, (Ms on file, Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College; Reliance Records).

92 H. A. Burkhardt, letter to Union Pacific, March 4, 1936. Reliance Tipple construction drawings and papers, (Ms on file, Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College; Reliance Records).

 93 Rock Springs Rocket, October 1, 1936, 1, 8.

94 The Cody Enterprise, October 9, 1935, 2.

95 Ibid..

96 Ibid..

97 The Cody Experience, July 17, 1935, 2.

98 Ibid.. The initials are as follows: Emergency Relief Administration (ERA), Works Progress Administration (WPA), Agriculture Adjustment Administration (AAA), Home Owner's Loan Corporation (HOLC), and HAM. Maybe the editor is referring to pork barrels when he uses the term HAM. HAM was not a New Deal program and Shaw was not above satire or irony when describing the New Deal.

99 Ibid..

100 The Cody Enterprise, June l9, 1935, 2.

101 Ibid.. 102 The Cody Enterprise, may 25, 1935, 7. 103 Ibid.. 104 Ibid.

105 Ibid.. 106 The Cody Enterprise, March 20, 1935, 2. 107 The Cody Enterprise, February 29, 1935, 1. 108 The Cody Experience, October 7, 1936, 2. 109 Ibid.. 110 Ibid.. 111 Ibid.. , 4. 112 Ibid.. 113 The Cody Enterprise, October 14, 1936, 2. 114 The Cody Enterprise, October 16, 1936, 2. 115 The Cody Enterprise, October 21, 1936, 2. 116 Ibid.. 117 The Cody Enterprise, October 28, 1936, 2. 118 TheCodvEnterprise,October26, 1936, 1-11. 119 Ibid.. 120 The Cody Enterprise, November 4, 1936, 1. 121 Ibid.., 2. 122 Rock Springs Rocket Miner, November 11, 1936, 1-3. 123 Rock Springs Daily Rocket, September 15, 1938, l. 124 Ibid.. 125 Ibid.., 1, 11. 126 The Rock Springs Daily Rocket, October 6, 1938, 10.

127 Ibid..

128 Ibid..

129 Ibid..

130 The Rock Springs Daily Rocket, September 16, 1938, 14.

131 Ibid..

132 Ibid. .

133 The Rock Springs Daily Rocket, September 21, 1938, 10.

134 Ibid..

135 Ibid..

136 The Rock Springs Rocket Miner, September 10, 1938, 3. The article begins, "100,000 Hunt for Fossils in State is Planned by WPA." Another article dated September 13, 1938, states that the "New City Garage" was being funded by federal monies. Other articles report on the CCC picnics on the Green and the CCC's efforts at Farson.

137 The Rock Springs Rocket Miner, September 22, 1938, 10.

138 Ibid..

 139 Ibid..

140 The Rock Springs Daily Rocket, September 22, 1938, 10.

141 Ibid..

142 Ibid..

143 Ibid..

144 Ibid..

145 T. A. Larson. History of Wyoming, (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1978), 467.

146 The Rock Springs Daily Rocket, November 9, 1938, l.

147 Ibid..

148 Larson, History of Wyoming, 467.

149 Joseph C. O'Mahoney. "Memorandum, Information Concerning Senator O'Mahoney's Work in the Senate to October 1, 1939," (American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Acc #27553-06-00: Box 64). Hereafter cited as O'Mahoney ''Memorandum.''

150 Ibid.., 2.

151 Ibid.., 3.

152 Ibid.., 3-4.

153 Ibid.., 6.

154 Ibid.., 7.

155 Ibid..

156 Ibid..

157 T. A. Larson, "The New Deal". Hereafter abbreviated Larson, "The New Deal."

158 Ibid.., 268.

159 O'Mahoney, "Memorandum," 1939, 8.

160 Ibid.., 8-9.

161 Ibid.., 12.

162 Ibid..

163 Larson, "New Deal, " 254.                                                                                                

164 Ibid..

165 Ibid.., 249.

166 Ibid.., 271.

167 Thurman W. Arnold, "Biography," (American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming, Laramie. Arnold Collection, File 627, Acc #0627), 1.

168 Ibid..

 169 For Wyoming's distrust of big business, see: Gregg Cawley, Janet Clark, Michael Horan, Maggi Murdock, Alan Schenker, Oliver Walter, The Equality State Government and Politics in Wyoming, Second Edition, (Debuque, Iowa: Eddie Bowers Publishing, Inc., l991). Hereafter cited as the: Equality State.

170 Thurman W. Arnold, "Government: An Address, Delivered at the Third Session of the Herald Tribune Forum Waldorf Astoria Hotel, New York City, October 26, 1938, National Broadcasting System," (American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Acc. No. 0627, Box 1, 8).

171 Ibid..

172 Thurman W. Arnold, "Addresses, Speeches, Statements: 1936, Denver Bar Association," (American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Acc. No. 0627, Box 1, 10).

173 Ibid.., 1-27.

174 The Equality State, 11.

 175 F. Alan Coombs, "The Impact of the New Deal on Wyoming politics," in John Braceman, Robert H. Bremner, and David Brody The New Deal: The State and Local Levels, (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1975), 233. In The Equality State, Conservatism is defined as having "a variety of meaning and manifested in an assortment of ways. For on thing, Wyoming is slow to adopt policy innovations. One study found that only two other states were slower to adopt new ideas into law than Wyoming." However, Wyoming conservatism "is more of a live and let live variety," 8.

176 Ibid..,

177 Ibid..

178 Ibid..

179 Ibid..

180 Ibid..

181 Ibid.., 234.

182 Ibid.. , 216.

183 Ibid.., 223.

184 Ibid..

185 Ibid.., 203.

186 Robert H. Brown, Wyoming: A Geography, (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1980), 47.

187 A. Dudley Gardner and Verla R. Flores, Forgotton Frontier: A History of Wyoming Coal Mining, (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1989). The statistics in this work enumerate the diminishing number of underground miners from 1920 to 1960.

188 F. Alan Coombs, "The Impact of the New Deal on Wyoming politics," in John Braceman, Robert H. Bremner, and David Brody The New Deal: The State and Local Levels, (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1975). In The Equality State, the authors note the following: "There is a realization that the state [of Wyoming] is at the mercy of outside interests, whether these interests are concerned with protecting the environment . . . or protecting coal mines in more populous states by the imposition of rules making it more costly to burn Wyoming coal .... Distrust of the federal government is widespread in Wyoming .... In contrast, attitudes toward their state and local government are much more favorable .... Finally ... nearly three-fourths [of Wyomingites in l991] believed themselves to be more self-reliant than other Americans," 10-13.

189 Biographical Directory of the Congress of the United States 1774-1989, Special Edition (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office). Bicentennial Edition Historical Statistics of the United States Colonial Times to 1970. Part 2, (Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1975), 1067-1085. Twelve Edition of Statistical Abstracts of the United States 1992, (Lanham, Maryland: Bernan Press, 1992), 249-275. M. Erwin, Wyoming Historical Blue Book Volume II (Cheyenne: Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department, 1974). V. C. Trenholm, Wyoming Historical Blue Book Volume III, (Cheyenne: Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department, 1974).

190 T. A. Larson, History of Wyoming, 621.

191 Based on John B. Richard, Government and Politics of Wyoming, (Debuque, lowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1969), 23.     

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