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Wyoming History

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Japanese in Wyoming

Part four of four parts

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Continue to References

1 Cheyenne Daily Leader, May 6, 1900.

2 The Daily Sun Leader, May 8, 1900.

3 The Daily Sun Leaders, May 8, 1900:2

4 The Daily Sun Leader, May 13, 1900.

5 Kemmerer Camera, November, 1902.

6 Kemmerer Camera, April 19, 1902.

7 Kemmerer Camera, November 10, 1915.

8 Carbon County Journal, Rawlins, Wyoming, April 22, 1899, 3. Union Pacific had a conscious policy of hiring diverse nationalities. D. O. Clark, Union Pacific's principal manager for coal operation, wrote to his supervisor in Omaha on August 10, 1900, stating, "Every possible care is taken to keep nationalities mixed and not allow any nationality to predominate, and no member of a labor organization is knowingly employed. If by accident we get one, he is dropped on first indication. The organizers who were trying to organize the miners at Rock Springs made a failure." D. O. Clark to H. G. Burt, August 10, 1900, Nebraska State Museum and Archives, Lincoln (UPRR Co. Ms 3761, SG2, Serial, Box 128, Folder 337). D. O. Clark had previously written a letter to H. G. Burt, April 26, 1899, claiming, "There are no signs of organization [labor unions] among the Rock Springs men and I think we can head off any attempt at organization by gradually increasing the number of Japanese and [black] miners. Have more confidence in the Jap[anese] than I have in the [black] men." D. O. Clark to H. G. Burt, April 26, 1899, Nebraska State Museum and Archives, Lincoln (UPRR Co. Ms 3761, SG2, Series 1, Box 127, Folder 337).

9 Twelfth Census of the United States 1900 (Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1901).

10 Census of Wyoming, 1905, Office of the Secretary of State of Wyoming (Cheyenne Wyoming, 1905).

11 Mike August, interview with the author, Rock Springs, Wyoming, fall 1989 (Ms. on file, Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College, Rock Springs), 1-20. Mike August's family was in partnership with two different Japanese men in the photography business. George Matsura was Charles August's partner until Matsura died in 1935. George Okano, interview with author, Rock Springs, Wyoming, fall 1989 (Ms. on file, Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College, Rock Springs), 1-7.

12 George Okano interview, 1.

13 Edith Sunada, interview with author Green River, Wyoming, 1986 (Ms. on file, Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College, Rock Springs), 1-45. Frank Dernovich, Mike Duzik, Eugene Paoli, Norma Paoli, Antone Pivik, and Amy Pivik, interview with author Rock Springs, Wyoming, 1984 (Ms. on file, Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College, Rock Springs). Union Pacific files, Superior (Ms. on file, Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College, Rock Springs), Boxes 1-5.

14 Twelfth Census of the United States 1900 (Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1922).

15 Fourteenth Census of the United States 1920 (Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1922).

16 George Nishi interview, Kemmerer, Wyoming, July 1991.

17 Yoshige Tonaka interview, Kemmerer, Wyoming, July 1991.

18 Sixteenth Census of the United States 1940 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1942).

19 Rock Springs Daily Rocket, December 10, 1941, 1.

20 Rock Springs Daily Rocket, December 11, 1941, 1.

21 Rock Springs Daily Rocket, December 13, 1941, 1.

22 Rock Springs Daily Rocket, February 7, 1942, 1.

23 Rock Springs Daily Rocket, February 26, 1942, 1.

24 Rock Springs Daily Rocket, February 13, 1942, 1.

25 Rock Springs Daily Rocket, February 13, 1942, 1.

26 George Okano interview, 6.

27 Frank Dernovich, et al. interview.

28 Agnes Sunada Tabuchi and Yoshio Tabuchi, interview with author, Reliance, Wyoming, 1986 (Ms. on file, Archaeological Services of Western Wyoming College, Rock Springs). Yoshio Tabuchi passed away at the age of 70 on February 7, 1988. "He was born February 28, married Agnes Sunada on October 14, 1940, in Manila, Utah . . . . He worked as a coal miner for 22 years," Rock Springs Daily Rocket Miner, February 9, 1988, 11.

29 Rock Springs Daily Rocket Miner, February 9, 1988, 16-17.

30 Wyoming State Coal Miner Inspector's Report, 1945, 31. (All state coal mine inspector's reports are on file Wyoming State Archives, Cheyenne).

31 William Zelenka interview with author Rock Springs, Wyoming, October 10, 1990 (Ms. on file, Archaeological Services, Western Wyoming College, Rock Springs).

32 Wyoming State Coal Mine Inspector's Report, 1941, 56.

33 Takayuki Tanako, interview with author, Rock Springs, Wyoming, October 10, 1990 (Ms. on file, Archaeological Services, Western Wyoming College, Rock Springs).

34 Agnes and Yoshio Tabuchi interview, 16-17.

35 Edith Sunada and George Okano interviews both discuss arranged marriages. Sunada describes both her mother's marriage and the fact she refused an arranged marriage.

36 George Okano interview, 3-5.

37 George Okano interview, 6.

38 Edith Sunada interview, 26.

39 Edith Sunada interview, 31.

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If you have any questions please feel free to contact Dudley Gardner.

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